PLC based Automated Guided Vehicle(Final Year Project)

Hi Friend ,

Today i want to share you a Final
Year project i. e “PLC based Automated Guided Vehicle”.


The objective of this project is to develop a robot that autonomously
moves pallets around a Model warehouse floor. The Automated Guided Vehicle, AGV
uses several sensor suites to characterize its behaviors. An infrared remote
control allows the robot to dynamically receive part orders. Its capabilities
are enhanced by the ability to send and receive tasks to an Automated Storage
and Retrieval System through RF data communication. While operating, infrared
and Proximity sensors allow the vehicle to avoid collisions.
 AGV control is usually done locally. An alternate implementation
involves a remote control. This schema opens up a full set of new applications
such as coordination of tasks in multi-AGV systems, providing at the end more
flexible manufacturing systems. Based on the benefits provided by the remote
control, an adequate architecture for AGV systems may consist in an external
controller sending and receiving, through a wireless network, the control
commands to the vehicle. Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) increase efficiency
and reduce costs by helping to automate a manufacturing facility or warehouse.

The first AGV was invented by Berrett Electronics in
1953. The AGV can tow objects
behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach. The trailerscan
be used to move raw materials or finished product. The AGV can also store
objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized rollers
(conveyor) and then pushed off by reversing them. AGVs are employed in nearly
every industry, including, pulp, paper, metals, newspaper, and general
manufacturing. Transporting materials such as food, linen or medicine in
hospitals is also done.
An AGV can also be called a
laser guided vehicle (LGV). In Germany the technology is also called Fahrerlose Transportsysteme (FTS) and
in Sweden förarlösa truckar.
Lower cost versions of AGVs are often called Automated Guided Carts (AGCs) and
are usually guided by magnetic tape. AGCs are available in a variety of models
and can be used to move products on an assembly line, transport goods throughout
a plant or warehouse, and deliver loads. The first AGV was brought to market in
the 1950s, by Barrett Electronics of Northbrook, Illinois, and at the time it
was simply a tow truck that followed a wire in the floor instead of a rail.
Over the years the technology has become more sophisticated and today automated
vehicles are mainly Laser navigated e.g. LGV (Laser Guided Vehicle). In an
automated process, LGVs are programmed to communicate with other robots to
ensure product is moved smoothly through the warehouse, whether it is being
stored for future use or sent directly to shipping areas. Today, the AGV plays
an important role in the design of new factories and warehouses, safely moving
goods to their rightful destination.
Limitation of Existing System:
Supports only Manual operations.
 It can’t control from remote area.
 Doesn’t provide status report of the appliances.
 Can’t control from Mobile phone and Tablets.
Proposed System:
An Automated Guided
Vehicle(AGV) is a robot that
follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most
often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing
facility or a warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has
broadened during the late 20th century. 
To overcome the drawbacks of
the existing system that is mentioned above we have introduced new concept
which is Automated Guided Vehicle using PLC Application. In this proposed
system we are able to control the Guided Vehicle from anywhere. We provide the
connectivity so that it can be control from anywhere. It breaks the limitation
of the existing system of access to the limited area.
supports following extra features which are not supported by the existing system:     

i. Can control appliances from Wireless Remote
ii. It provides us the status report of each appliance.
               iii. It also provides
scheduler for controlling appliances.
Block Diagram :


Block Diagram of Project

As we see in the above figure, the remote control, proximity sensor,
infrared sensor are connected at input & power supply connected to
programmable logic control. At output we connected three motors with encoder
also the indicator. The remote control having three buttons one for call the
AGV & other two buttons provided to give command of destination. proximity
sensor used to detect the obstacle in front of AGV. Then the infrared sensor
used to sense the path (for line follower).We are using D.C. with break instead
of stepper or servo motor because we are using the encoder which gives us
feedback, but in stepper motor we does not get the feedback also the price of
stepper & servo motor is more than the D.C. motor. Two motors out of three
are used as left & right & third one used for tray. To control the AGV
we are using PLC. The paths are programmed in the plc & according to
requirement one of them is selected. We are providing three indicators If any
person come in path of AGV then 1st indicator will indicate that person to move
away from the path. Then 2nd indicator will indicate low battery
signal. Third indicator will indicate the AGV is reached at destination point,
and alarm will be beeped to indicate that person. The power supply required to
run the is AGV 24V DC.

What is
PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) ?
Definition of PLC:- A digitally operating electronic apparatus
which uses a programming memory for the internal storage of instructions for
implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and
arithmetic to control through digital or analog modules, various types of
machines or process.


Delta Make PLC DVP14SS
Specification of Delta PLC DVP14SS

Specification of Delta PLC DVP14SS

Operation of PLC :-
operation of a programmable controller is relatively simple. The input/output
(I/O) system is physically connected to the field devices that are encountered
in the machine or that are used in the control of a process. These field
devices may be discrete or analog input/output devices, such as limit switches,
pressure transducers, push buttons, motor starters, solenoids, etc. The I/O
interfaces provide the connection between the CPU and the information providers
(inputs) and controllable devices (outputs). During its operation, the CPU
completes three processes:

1.  It reads, or accepts, the
input data from the field devices via the input interfaces,
2.  It executes, or performs, the
control program stored in the memory system, and
3.  It writes, or updates, the output
devices via the output interfaces.
This process
of sequentially reading the inputs, executing the program in memory, and
updating the outputs is known as scanning. Figure 4.3 illustrates a graphic
representation of a scan.

         Logic for line follower:


RF Based Wireless Remote using RX-TX
This circuit utilizes the
RF module (Tx/Rx) for making a wireless remote, which could be used to drive an
output from a distant place. RF module, as the name suggests, uses radio
frequency to send signals. These signals are transmitted at a particular
frequency and a baud rate. A receiver can receive these signals only if it is
configured for that frequency.

A four channel
encoder/decoder pair has also been used in this system. The input signals, at
the transmitter side, are taken through four switches while the outputs are
monitored on a set of four LEDs corresponding to each input switch. The circuit
can be used for designing Remote Appliance Control system. The outputs from the
receiver can drive corresponding relays connected to any household appliance. 


This circuit utilizes
the RF module (Tx/Rx) for making a wireless remote,which could be used to drive
an output from a distant place. RF module, as the name suggests, uses radio
frequency to send signals. These signals are transmitted at a particular
frequency and a baud rate. A receiver can receive these signals only if it is
configured for that frequency.

 Motor Driver for AGV:

In our project we are using relays to
build motor driver kit. In this driver circuit we use four relays to drive a
single motor i.e. we are using eight relays to drive two motors.

The circuit diagram motor driver is as shown below.

Motor Driver Circuit

As we see in fig. we get output
at port y0, y1, y2 & y3 from PLC. This output of PLC gives -24V output.
Which is connected to one terminal of relay coil. At other terminal we provide
+24V supply. We give +24V to all positive terminal of relay coil. We use two
relays to each output port of PLC. Out of them y0 & y2 are used to forward
motor and other are y1 & y3 are used to reverse motor. 

 To forward left motor we
use relay1 & relay2. We connect the NO terminal of relay1 to positive
terminal of motor. Also NO terminal of relay2 to negative terminal of motor.
The common terminal of relay1 is connected to +12V supply and common terminal
of relay2 is connected to -12V supply. 

 To reverse left motor we
use relay3 & relay4. The NO terminal of relay3 is connected to positive
terminal of motor and NO terminal of relay4 is connected to negative terminal
of motor. The common terminal of relay3 is connected to -12V supply and common
terminal of relay4 is connected to +12V supply. 

 Similarly we made
connection for right motor.


Raw Material Handling:

AGVs are
commonly used to transport raw materials such as paper, steel, rubber, metal,
and plastic. This includes transporting materials from receiving to the
warehouse, and delivering materials directly to production lines.

Work-in-Process Movement:

movement is one of the first applications where automated guided vehicles were
used, and includes the repetitive movement of materials throughout the
manufacturing process. AGVs can be used to move material from the warehouse to
production/processing lines or from one process to another.

Pallet Handling:

handling is an extremely popular application for AGVs as repetitive movement of
pallets is very common in manufacturing and distribution facilities. AGVs can
move pallets from the palletizer to stretch wrapping to the warehouse/storage
and/or to the outbound shipping docks.

Finished Product Handling:

finished goods from manufacturing to storage or shipping is the final movement
of materials before they are delivered to customers. These movements often
require the gentlest material handling because the products are complete and
subject to damage from rough handling. Because AGVs operate with precisely
controlled navigation and acceleration and deceleration this minimizes the
potential for damage making them an excellent choice for this type of

Trailer Loading:

loading of trailers is a relatively new application for automated guided
vehicles and becoming increasingly popular. AGVs are used to transport and load
pallets of finished goods directly into standard, over-the-road trailers
without any special dock equipment. AGVs can pick up pallets from conveyors,
racking, or staging lanes and deliver them into the trailer in the specified
loading pattern.

Roll Handling:

AGVs are
used to transport rolls in many types of plants including paper mills,
converters, printers, newspapers, steel producers, and plastics manufacturers.
AGVs can store and stack rolls on the floor, in racking, and can even
automatically load printing presses with rolls of paper.

Paper and Print:

AGVs can
move paper rolls, pallets, and waste bins to provide all routine material
movement in the production and warehousing (storage/retrieval) of paper,
newspaper, printing, corrugating, converting, and plastic film.

Food and Beverage:

AGVs can be
applied to move materials in food processing (such as the loading of food
and/or trays into sterilizers) and at the “end of line,” linking the
palletizer, stretch wrapper, and the warehouse. AGVs can load standard,
over-the-road trailers with finished goods, and unload trailers to supply raw
materials or packaging materials to the plant. AGVs can also store and retrieve
pallets in the warehouse.

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