Siemens PLC Programming OBs in Siemens TIA Portal

Siemens
PLC Programming OBs in Siemens TIA Portal

BlocksThe programmable logic
controller provides various types of blocks in which the user program and the
related data can be stored. Depending on the requirements of the process, the
program can be structured in different blocks. You can use the entire operation
set in all blocks (FB, FC and OB).



Organization
blocks (OBs)
Organization blocks (OBs) form
the interface between the operating system and the user program. The entire
program can be stored in OB1 that is cyclically called by the operating system
(linear program) or the program can be divided and stored in several blocks
(structured program). There are many different OBs executing as per different
conditions and its priority.

Function
(FCs)
A function (FC) contains a
partial functionality of the program. It is possible to program functions so
that they can be assigned parameters. As a result, functions are also suited
for programming recurring, complex partial functionalities such as
calculations.

Function
Block (FBs)
Basically, function blocks
offer the same possibilities as functions. In addition, function blocks have
their own memory area in the form of instance data blocks. As a result,
function blocks are suited for programming frequently recurring, complex functionalities
such as closed-loop control tasks.
Structured
Programming
Linear Program
The entire program is found in
one continuous program block. This model resembles a hard-wired relay control
that was replaced by a programmable logic controller. The CPU processes the
individual instructions one after the other.


Partitioned
Program
The program is divided into
blocks, whereby every block only contains the program for solving a partial
task. Further partitioning through networks is possible within a block. You can
generate network templates for networks of the same type. The OB 1 organization
block contains instructions that call the other blocks in a defined sequence.

Structured
Program
A structured program is divided
into blocks. The code in OB1 is kept to a minimum with calls to other blocks
containing code. The blocks are parameter assignable. These blocks can be
written to pass parameters so they can be used universally. When a parameter
assignable block is called, the programming editor lists the local variable
names of the blocks. Parameter values are assigned in the calling block and
passed to the function or function block.


Start
Up OBs.
The startup program is executed
once during the transition from “STOP” mode to “RUN” mode.
Current values from the process image of the inputs are not available for
startup program, nor can these values be set.After the complete execution of
the startup OBs, the process image of the inputs is read in and the cyclic
program is started.There is no time limit for executing the startup routine.
Therefore the scan cycle monitoring time is not active. Time-driven or
interrupt-driven organization blocks cannot be used.

OB 100- Warm Restart
OB 101- Hot Restart
OB 102-Cold Restart
Cyclic
Program OB

OB1 is main Organization block
which is executing the program cycle periodically or cyclically with lowest
priority.

Periodic
Program OBs

These OB will execute
periodically once interrupt will come as per the condition like Time of day
interrupt OB 10 to OB 17.

Time
of Day OB

A time-of-day interrupt can
only be processed if it is set and activated, and a corresponding organization
block exists in the user program.

The start times of periodic
time-of-day interrupts must correspond to a real date. For example, it is not
possible to repeat an organization block monthly which first occurs on January
31st. In this case, on OB will only be started in the months that have 31 days.

A time-of-day interrupt
activated during startup by extended instruction call ACT_TINT will not be
executed until the startup is complete. After each CPU startup, you must
reactivate previously set time-of-day interrupts

Cyclic
Interrupt OB

Cyclic interrupt OBs serve to
start program in periodic time intervals independently of the cyclic program
execution. The start times of a cyclic interrupt OB are specified using the
time base and the phase offset.

The time base defines the
intervals at which the cyclic interrupt OB is started and is an integer
multiple of the basic clock cycle of 1 ms. The phase offset is the time by
which the start time is offset compared with the basic clock cycle. If several
cyclic interrupt OBs are being used, you can use this offset to prevent a
simultaneous start time if the time bases of the cyclic interrupt OBs have
common multiples.

You can specify a time period
between 1 ms and 60000 ms as the time base.
Event
Driven Program OBs

There are 4 types of event
driven interrupt.

1.    
Time
Delay interrupt (OB 20 to 23)

A “Time delay
interrupt” OB will interrupt cyclic program execution when a specified
delay time has expired. The delay time is specified in the input parameter of
the extended instruction “SRT_DINT”.

2.    
Hardware
Interrupt (OB 40 to 47)

A
“Hardware interrupt” OB will interrupt cyclic program execution in
reaction to a signal from a hardware event. The events must be defined in the
properties of the configured hardware.
3.      Synchronous
Error (OB 80 to 87)

When there is any hardware,
rack, power or communication type of fault or failure is there then it will be
synchronous error and we can use below OBs as per examples.

4.      Asynchronous
Error (OB 121 to 122)

When there is programming type
of error or access error is coming in terms of addressing that would be
Asynchronous error and  in that case we
can use these OBs as per below.



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